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Field Sampling Plan

Section 2 - Environmental Sampling

2.1 - Sampling Procedures

Different types of samples will be collected throughout the project. The following sections describe the various procedures for discrete sample collection.

2.1.1   Surface Soil Samples

Surface soil is usually referred to as the soil extending from the surface to a depth of 2 feet. Surface-soil samples will be collected to characterize each SWMU as identified in the WP.

Surface soil is collected using stainless steel and/or Teflon-lined scoops, trowels, shovels, spoons, or spatulas. The following steps must be followed when collecting the samples:

  1. Carefully remove stones, vegetation, etc., if possible, from the sampling location surface.

  2. On the surface, carefully remove the top 1 to 2 cm (around 4 to 8 ml) of exposed soil before sample collection. For deeper soil samples, remove overlying soil as necessary with a decontaminated auger, shovel, or similar device.

  3. Obtain and record PID readings in the breathing zone and 1 to 2 inches from the exposed soil.

  4. Use a clean, stainless steel or Teflon -lined scoop, trowel, or shovel to collect sufficient material in one grab to fill the sample containers.

  5. For volatile organic analyses (VOA) and semivolatile organic analyses (SVOA) samples, fill the containers directly from the sampling device, removing stones, twigs, grass, etc., from the sample. Leave minimal headspace in the container.

  6. Label container with the appropriate information. Place in Ziploc or other plastic bag and seal the bag. Maintain proper chain-of-custody documentation. Chain-of-custody procedures are detailed in Section 5.2 of the QAPP.

  7. Pack sample in cooler with ice.

  8. Use decontaminated sampling equipment at each sample location to prevent cross-contamination.

One trip blank will be included in each ice chest that contains soil and/or water samples which are to be analyzed for VOCs. Trip blanks will be supplied by the laboratory and will only be analyzed for VOCs.

Soil samples will be analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, total metals, and explosives. Sample containers, analytical methods, preservation, and holding times for soil samples are listed on Table 2.1. One field sample duplicate will be collected for every ten soil samples collected. Field duplicates are further described below.

Soil samples for chemical analyses will be marked to identify boring and depth, and cooled on ice to 4�C � 2�C for preservation. The sample jars will also be marked with analyses to be performed, date and time of collection, and initials of samplers.

2.1.2   Collection of Duplicate Samples

Duplicate samples are typically obtained for either of two purposes: (1) as a means of assessing quality control from the point of sample collection through all analytical processes (if the initial and duplicate samples are not within specification, the reasons for the discrepancy must be found and corrected, if possible), or (2) for later laboratory analyses, if needed. For this project, duplicate samples will be collected to provide information on the variability of the contaminants in the field.

The following steps must be followed when collecting duplicate samples:

  1. Determine the frequency of obtaining duplicate samples as specified in the site-specific sampling plan (one duplicate for every ten soil or groundwater sample).

  2. Proceed with site sampling to the point that a duplicate sample is required.

  3. Collect the duplicate sample by dividing one grab sample into two equal parts. Note: Any sample or portion of a sample that is to be analyzed for VOCs and SVOCs shall be collected and contained immediately. Do not stir, mix, or agitate samples scheduled for VOC and SVOC analysis before containment.

  4. Follow the specific media sampling procedures outlined in Section 2.1.1. The preparation and disposition of the duplicates will be the same as those for the primary samples.

  5. Obtain VOC and SVOC samples first (without mixing or compositing), then proceed to Step 6. Mix all non-VOC/SVOC replicate samples as previously detailed. Mixing water may be accomplished by pouring a portion of the sample directly from the sampling device into the original container, and then pouring an equal portion into the duplicate container, alternating between the two until the sample containers are full. In the case of sampling for nonvolatiles in soils and sediments, the mixture may be homogenized by placing the entire sample into a stainless steel or Teflon -lined mixing bowl and mixing the sample thoroughly before collecting the duplicates using the methods described in Section 2.1.1.

  1. Place the sample(s) in the appropriate sample container. Duplicate samples will be labeled blind or tagged according to their intended use. Duplicate samples must be properly identified in the field logbook.

  2. Seal, pack, and transport duplicate samples in the same manner as that used for other samples from the sampling site.

2.1.3   Matrix Spike/Matrix Spike Duplicate (MS/MSD) Sample Collection

Matrix spike (MS) and matrix spike duplicate (MSD) samples from a specific media are spiked with known quantities of analytes at the laboratory. The analytes used as spiking compounds will depend upon the analytical method used.

MS and MSD samples are a form of laboratory quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) for determining matrix effects and the reliability of the analytical processes and equipment. The matrix effect is a condition in which sample composition interferes with the analysis of the desired analyte(s). Spiked sample recovery supplies percentage recovery information so that the laboratory can evaluate its measurement accuracy. MS and MSD samples are equal portions of a single initial sample that has been spiked in the laboratory with specific analytes in known quantities and the analytical results must meet certain laboratory requirements to be acceptable.

One MS and one MSD sample shall be collected and analyzed for every twenty project samples collected.

The following steps must be followed when preparing MS/MSD samples:

  1. Determine the frequency of obtaining MS and MSD samples as stated in the site-specific sampling plan (one for every twenty samples).

  2. Proceed with site sampling to the point of obtaining the MS and MSD samples. Any sample or portion of a sample that is to be analyzed for VOCs and SVOCs shall be collected and contained immediately. Do not stir, mix, or agitate samples scheduled for VOC and SVOC analysis before containment. For groundwater, triplicate volume is typically required, so fill MS/MSD containers after collecting the sample at a particular location.

  3. Follow the specific media sampling procedures outlined in Section 2.1.1. The preparation and disposition of the MS/MSD samples will be the same as those for the primary samples.

  4. Seal the containers as soon as filled. Clean the outside of the sample containers and label the three containers.

Field personnel will ensure that each container is identified with a self-adhesive label to indicate the project name, sampling location, time, date, sampler initials, preservative(s) added, if any, and analysis required.

Each sample will be identified with a separate identification label. Example sample identification label and seal are presented in Section 2.2. The label will document:

Analyses to be performed,

Sample identification number,

Source/location of sample,


Time (a four-digit number indicating the 24-hour clock time of collection; for example 1430 for 2:30 p.m.), and

Sampler�s initials.

2.1.4   Subsurface Soil/Rock Sampling

Rock samples will be collected for chemical analysis using a air rotary drill rig and a core barrel. When the top of the sampling interval is encountered, air will be circulated in the hole to remove as many cuttings as possible. Then, the string of drill pipe will be removed from the hole. The core barrel will then be attached to the drill string and run into the hole. Coring will be performed very slowly to minimize heating of the rock and core barrel. After the core has been brought to the surface and removed from the core barrel, rock selected for chemical analysis will be broken off from the core with a hammer and placed in the appropriate sample jar.

The depth intervals of these samples will be chosen based on changes in lithology and field screening observations. These samples will be analyzed for VOC, SVOC, metals, and explosives. Special care will be taken in all sampling, handling, packaging, and shipping of all samples. Sample container, analytical methods, preservation, and holding times are listed on Table 2.2. The sample will be labeled with the project number, project name, date of sampling, core number, interval of sampling, and any other pertinent information.

2.1.5   Groundwater Sampling

Groundwater samples will be collected from each monitoring well for chemical analysis. The purging and sampling procedures will be documented in the field book and on development/purging forms located in Appendix A.

Necessary equipment to measure water levels and collect samples includes:

Electric water level measurement tape;

Teflon bailer or portable pump;

Nylon rope (with stainless steel lead);

Plastic sheet;

Water collection bucket and/or drum;

Field-grade pH, temperature, and specific conductivity meter;

PID if necessary for health and safety monitoring;

Decontamination equipment (potable water, nonphosphate soap, and brushes);


Sample jars from laboratory; and

Sample labels, chain-of-custody records, and groundwater sampling forms.

Before sampling begins, sample containers will be prepared with appropriate labels and preservations. Groundwater sample containers, analytical methods, preservation, and holding times are shown in Table 2.2.

The initial well purging and sampling will take place at least 24 hours after well development is completed. Before each monitoring well is purged and sampled, the water level will be measured within �0.01 foot with respect to the reference point on the top of the casing. The air in the breathing zone will be checked with a PID every time a casing cap is removed and recorded in the field log book along with other pertinent data, such as time and date.

After the water level is recorded, the well will be purged to remove any stagnant water. Either a PVC bailer or a submersible pump will be used to purge the well. All purging and sampling equipment will be decontaminated prior to use following the procedures described in Section 1.5. Purging and sampling will be performed in a manner that minimizes the agitation of sediments in the well and formation. Equipment will not be allowed to free-fall into the well.

At least three well casing volumes of groundwater will be removed from each monitoring well prior to sampling. A casing volume differs from a pore volume in that it includes the volume of water within the well casing only. A pore volume includes the casing volume and the volume of water within the filter pack. Based on previous monitoring well sampling at CSSA leaking tank sites, it is not expected that perched water will provide even three well casing volumes. The temperature, pH, and conductivity will be measured and recorded after each 5-gallon volume is removed during purging. The sample may be collected after three casing volumes have been removed and the temperature, pH, conductivity, color, and odor have stabilized. These parameters will be considered stable when pH varies �0.1 unit, temperature varies �0.5 C, and conductivity varies �10 u mhos/cm or less during the removal of at least three well volumes. If these parameters do not stabilize, the sample will be taken after five casing volumes have been removed. Calibration of the pH, temperature, and conductivity meters is discussed in Section 3.4. Disposal of water generated during purging is described in Section 1.7.

Samples will be collected after the water level has recovered to 80 percent of its static level, or 16 hours after completion of purging, whichever occurs first. When a low-yield monitoring well is pumped or bailed dry before three well pore volumes have been removed, the sample will be collected as soon as the volume of recovered fluid is sufficient for sampling.

Groundwater samples will be collected in order of increasing anticipated contamination when possible, using a PVC bailer with stainless steel leader (EPA, 1992). Careful use of the bailer will minimize sample agitation and contact with air. A clean length of nylon cord will be used for raising and lowering the bailer and stainless steel leader in each well.

The sampling form will record the following:

Site identification and well number;

Time and date;

Sounded total depth of the monitoring well, depth to water before and after purging, actual volume of water purged, thickness of any floating hydrocarbon layer, depth to water before and after sampling;

Field measurements of pH, temperature, and conductivity, and equipment calibration information; and

Appearance and odor of the purged water, the condition of the well, weather conditions, and other comments.

Required preservatives will be added to the sample bottles before sample collection. The pH of preserved samples will be checked in the field by pouring a small amount of sample onto pH paper. The range of the pH paper will closely bracket the expected pH. The paper must not touch the sample inside the container. The pH of acidified VOC samples will not be checked.

Samples to be analyzed for VOCs will be collected first and immediately sealed in a container so that no headspace exists. Samples for volatile organic analyses will not be composited, homogenized, or filtered.

2.1.6   IDW Sampling

IDW will be sampled to characterize the waste(s) for disposal. Drill cuttings suspected to be hazardous from HNu or OVA readings, odor, or discoloration will be placed in clean 55-gallon U.S. DOT drums as described in Section 1.7. Composite samples will be collected from these drums and analyzed for TCLP organics and metals identified in the analysis of the discrete samples collected during field activities. The extraction method for TCLP is SW-1311. All RCRA nonhazardous IDW will be placed on the ground. No QA/QC samples will be associated with waste characterization sampling.

2.2 - Sampling Handling

All samples will be placed in precleaned (to EPA level 3) glass and plastic bottles for shipment to the laboratory. All bottles will have Teflon-lined lids. The precleaned bottles will be obtained from the subcontracted analytical laboratory or other suitable vendor.

2.2.1   Sample Identification

A sample numbering system will be used to identify each sample collected during the field investigation and for all samples. The numbering system will be a tracking mechanism to allow retrieval of information about a particular location and to ensure that each sample is uniquely numbered. The field team leader will maintain a listing of sample numbers. Each sample will assume the format described below.

There will be an alphanumeric identification code unique to each sampling location. Equipment rinsate and trip blanks will also be identified using an alphanumeric identification code. The field team leader will note in the field logbook which volatile samples are associated with each trip blank during shipment to the laboratory. Each sample number will consist of a location identification code and a consecutive sample number. Samples collected from soil borings will have the depth at which the sample is collected in parentheses following the sample number. The numbering system for duplicate samples will begin with the number 100.

The first two characters of the sample identification number will be one of the following:

SB = Soil boring sampling location

SS = Surface soil sampling location

SW = Surface water sampling location

GW = Groundwater sample

EB = Equipment rinsate blank

TB = Trip blank.

For example, SB5(20) is the soil sample collected at boring number 5 at a depth of 20 feet bgl.

Each sample will be labeled with a gummed tag (Figure 2.1) which is marked with:

Sample identification,

Time of collection (24-hour, four-digit),

Date of collection (day, month, and year in the form dd-mm-yy),

Sampler's initials,

Analytical method name and number,

Any field preparation of the sample (e.g., filtered), and

Preservation method.

U.S. DOT shipping requirements will be followed when applicable.

The samples will be shipped in ice chests by an overnight carrier such as Federal Express. Glass bottles will be wrapped with polynet and bubble wrap and placed in an airtight plastic bag. A chain-of-custody (COC) form will be sealed in a plastic bag and taped to the inside lid of each ice chest. Each chest will be sealed with tape and a custody seal (Figure 2.1).

Prior arrangements must be made with the laboratory when collecting samples for these analyses. Overnight delivery may not be appropriate due to time constraints. In those cases, the samples may be hand delivered or shipped by other means. Field QA/QC of sampled materials will include the following:

  1. Check all labels for legibility and accuracy; replace label if necessary.

  2. Ensure that all labels are covered with wide, clear cellophane tape to protect labels during shipping.

  3. Visually check the outside surface of the containers for proper decontamination. If any containers appear soiled, decontaminate again.

  4. Check all container lids and tighten if necessary.

  5. Wrap sample containers with foam packaging materials or bubble wrap to prevent breakage during shipping.

  6. Place packed sample containers in individual zip-lock type plastic bags.

  7. Place sufficient packaging material in the bottom and around the sides of the shipping cooler.

  8. Place wrapped samples in the cooler. Complete and check chain-of-custody forms during packaging.

  9. Add ice to the cooler in quantities adequate to maintain temperatures at 4� C �2�C during shipment. Ice should be placed in zip-lock type plastic bags or blue ice should be used.

  10. Fill excess space in cooler with packaging material to prevent movement of the sample containers. Styrofoam beads, peanuts, bubble pack, or other packaging material may be used.

  11. The field team leader or a designee shall review the chain-of-custody paperwork and the sample packaging before releasing the cooler for delivery to the laboratory.

  12. The paperwork which accompanies the samples to the laboratory is placed inside a zip-lock type plastic bag, sealed and taped to the inside of the cooler lid.

  13. The following markings are placed on the top of the cooler:

Total quantity of coolers in shipment (i.e., 2 of 4);

Shipper's name and address.

  1. The cooler is closed and sealed with packing tape in manner to prevent inadvertent opening during shipping.

  2. A custody seal will be placed on the cooler in an area that would indicate if tampering had occurred.

  3. A completed label for shipping by express carrier is attached to the top of the cooler, if necessary.

Call express carrier to arrange pick up of the coolers, or deliver to the most convenient carrier's office, or deliver to the laboratory.

2.3 - Sample Custody

COC records provide a means of tracing each sample from the time of collection through shipment and final analyses, producing a written record of all persons handling the samples. A sample is defined as being under one's custody if it is in one's possession or in view after being in one's possession, or if that person placed the sample in a designated secure area.

The COC form will list sample identification, matrix, date and time of collection, preservatives used, analyses requested, name of sample collector(s), and the signature of each person receiving and relinquishing the samples. An example COC form is shown in Figure 2.2. The "Remarks" column of the COC form will be used to record additional information which may be of use to the laboratory for prescreening the samples, and to note any sample preservation methods used.

A COC record will accompany the samples at all times. When transferring possession of samples, the individual relinquishing and receiving the samples will sign, date, and note the time on the record. This record documents transfer of sample custody from the sampler through any intermediary custodians to the laboratory.

Samples will be properly packaged for shipment and dispatched to the appropriate laboratory for analysis with a separate signed COC record included in each sample box or cooler. Shipping containers will be custody-sealed for shipment to the laboratory by overnight express delivery or courier service. Bills of lading will be retained as part of the permanent documentation in the project file. The original COC will accompany the shipment, and the field team leader will retain a copy. The laboratory will make and maintain a file copy, and the completed original will be returned as a part of the final analytical report.

2.4 - Quality Control Samples

Four types of field QC samples will be collected during the entire investigative effort. Water used for blanks will have analytical data or a manufacturer's certification that verifies the quality of the water and shows it to be free of analytes and contaminants that may interfere with the required laboratory analyses. The water's electrical conductivity will be less than 1.0 u mhos/cm (at 25�C). Type II reagent-grade water will be purchased and stored only in glass or Teflon containers with Teflon caps or cap liners.

2.4.1  Trip Blanks

One trip blank will accompany every cooler shipped to the laboratory which contains soil and/or water samples to be analyzed for VOCs. A trip blank is a VOC sample bottle filled in the laboratory with type II reagent-grade water, transported to the site, handled like a sample, and returned to the laboratory for analysis. If there is more than one sampling team, only one team will carry a trip blank to the sampling locations. Trip blanks will not be opened in the field. This blank will be analyzed for VOCs only. The sample ID for trip blanks will be FIELDQC. The sample type will be TB numbered sequentially starting with 1 (e.g.TB1).

2.4.2   Equipment Blanks

One equipment blank will be collected for every twenty soil or groundwater samples taken. An equipment blank is type II reagent-grade water that is poured onto the sampling device, transferred to a sample bottle, and transported to the laboratory for analysis. This blank will be subjected to all laboratory analyses requested for environmental samples at the site at which the blank is collected. The sample ID will be FIELDQC. The sample type will be EB, numbered sequentially starting with 1 (e.g., EB1).

2.4.3   Field Duplicate Samples

One field duplicate will be taken for every ten environmental samples collected. A field duplicate is one of two samples collected independently at a sampling location during a single act of sampling. Both the sample and its duplicate will be analyzed for the same constituents in the laboratory.

2.4.4   MS and MSD Samples

One set of MS/MSD samples will be collected for every twenty soil, water, and sediment samples taken. MS and MSD samples each require the same sample volume that the environmental sample requires. The sample type is MS for the matrix spike, and SD for the matrix spike duplicate and numbered sequentially starting with 1 (e.g., MS1 and SD1).

2.4.5   Standard Reporting Units

The following standard reporting units will be used during phases of the project:

PID readings will be reported to 0.2 parts per million (ppm),

Temperature will be reported to the nearest 0.5� C,

pH readings will be reported to the nearest 0.1 standard unit,

Conductivity readings will be reported to the nearest 0.1 u mhos/cm,

Water level measured in wells will be reported to the nearest 0.01 foot, and

Soil sampling depths will be reported to the nearest 0.1 foot.

2.5 - Sample Analysis Summary

A summary of the project analyses is shown on Table 2.3.

Table 2.3 - Summary of Project Analyses



Method Number


































Volatile Organics



Semivolatile Organics





SW8330 (lab modified)

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