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Appendix D - Training Program

Safety and Health Program / Site Entry

Objectives/Samples of Behavior:

  1. Describe the elements of the site safety plans.

  2. Explain the set-up of a site.

  3. Develop a site safety plan for the scenarios provided.

A.  General

  1. Purpose:  to identify, evaluate, & control safety & health hazards & provide for emergency response

  2. Program incorporates:

  1. Organizational structure

General supervisor / team leader / commander

Site safety and health supervisor

  1. Comprehensive workplan

  2. Safety & health training program

  3. Medical surveillance program

  4. Employer's SOP for safety and health

  5. Any necessary interface between general program & site specific activities

  6. Site specific safety & health plan

B.  Site-specific Safety & Health Plan

  1. Must be kept on site

  2. Addresses safety & health hazards of each phase of site operations

  3. Includes requirements & procedures for employee protection

  4. Info for preparing & updating from site characterization & analysis work

  5. Provides for pre-entry briefing prior to initiating any site activity

  6. Elements

  1. Safety & health risk or hazard analyses for each site task & operation

  2. Employee training assignments

  3. PPE to be used for each site / operation

  4. Medical surveillance requirements

  5. Types & frequency of :

Air monitoring

Personnel monitoring

Environmental sampling techniques

Equipment to be used incl main & cal

  1. Decon procedures

  2. Confined space entry procedures

  3. Spill containment program

  4. Emergency response plan

  5. Pre-entry briefing - site characteristics & analysis

  6. Site control measures

C.  Site Control Program

  1. Site map - update when:

  1. New materials introduced on site

  2. Hazards not previously IDed are found

  3. Changes in pathways of dispersion

  4. Other significant changes

  1. Use of buddy system

  2. Site communications - visual / verbal

  3. SOPs for safe work practices

  4. ID of nearest medical help

  5. Site work zones

D.  Site Characterization

  1. Preliminary evaluation

  1. General area & offsite characterization


Hazardous substances involved & properties

Actual or expected safety & health hazards

Geologic and hydrologic data

Site location & size

Response activities / emergency

Accessibility by air / road

Previous surveying sampling data

  1. Perimeter reconnaissance

Site maps

Historical / current photos

Container / vehicle markings & condition

Biological indicators

Unusal conditions / odors

Air monitoring at perimeter

Off-site samples

Security / physical barriers

Access control points

  1. On-site survey - level B minimum

  1. Monitor air for IDLH atmospheres

O2 deficiency

Combustibles / explosives


Toxic substances

  1. O2 indicators

Meter Reading



Monitor wearing SCBA

CGI readings may not be valid

19.5 - 25%

Continue with caution - SCBA not needed based solely on O2 conc.


Discontinue investigation - fire hazard

  1. Combustible gas indicators

Meter Reading


<10% LEL

Continue monitoring with caution

10-25% LEL

Continue with extreme caution as higher levels are encountered


Explosion hazard - withdraw immediately

  1. Radiation survey

Meter Reading


< 1 mR/hr

If levels are above background, continue with caution - perform thorough monitoring - consult health physician

>1 mR/hr

Potential radiation hazard - evacuate site - consult with health physicist

  1. Entry objectives

Visually observe for signs of IDLH conditions:

Confined spaces

Visible vapor / gas / dust clouds

Biological indicators

Note types of containers - polyethylene, steel, wood, paper, etc

Note condition of containers & storage systems

Note physical condition of materials

Note indicators of potential exposure / hazard:

Describe response activities or job tasks to be performed

Duration of planned employee activity

Status & capabilities of emergency response teams in case of on-site emergencies

Risk ID & employee notification of same

Update SSHP

E.  Emergency Response Plan

  1. Pre-emergency planning

  2. Personnel roles, lines of authority, communication

  3. Emergency recognition & prevention

  4. Safe distances & places of refuge

  5. Site security & control

  6. Evacuation routes & procedures

  7. Decon procedures (not covered under SSHP)

  8. Emergency medical treatment & 1st aid

  9. Emergency alerting & response procedures (install emergency alarm system)

  10. PPE & emergency equipment

  11. Critique of response & follow-up

  12. List site topography, layout, prevailing weather

  13. Procedures for reporting incidents to govt agencies

  14. Compatible/integrated with disaster/ fire/etc of various govt agencies

  15. Rehearsed regularly

  16. Reviewed periodically

F.  Exercise Site Safety Plan

  1. Organizational structure

On-scene commander:

  1. Safety officer / staff

  2. Science staff

  3. Medical support / liaison

  4. Support (recordkeeping, communication, etc)

  5. Public information officer

  6. Security

  7. Field operations officer:

Entry teams

Backup team

Decon team

Equipment officer

  1. Others?

  1. Group 1 duties:

  1. Choose key personnel

  2. Risk analysis

All known or suspected physical, biological, chemical hazards

Update risk analyses as data comes in

  1. Select PPE / levels of protection - include details on type of clothing, respiratory protection, etc

  2. Air monitoring - type, frequency, instruments / equipment

  3. Sampling techniques - soil, debris, etc, as needed

  4. Medical monitoring

Current baseline & annual medical exams

Spell out any site-specific special tests

Procedures for monitoring workers for heat stress, chemical exposures, or other hazards

  1. Group 2 duties:

  1. Site control - steps to prevent unauthorized entry & prepare site for work

  2. Decon procedures for people & equipment - also handling & disposal of all decon materials

  3. Emergency planning

How, where, & what for potential emergencies - fire, explosion, medial

Provide names of hospitals, routes, key phone numbers

  1. Confined space, if applicable

  2. Weather-related problems

Consider wide variety of temperature, wind, precipitation extremes

Threats of storms, blizzards, tornadoes

  1. Buddy system / communications

Where & when workers must work in teams

Radio etiquette, standard form of language, call signs, channel

Describe standard hand communication signals

Hand gripping throat

"can't breathe, out of air"

Gripping partner's wrist or both hands around waist

"leave area immediately"

Hands on top of head

"need assistance"

Thumbs up

"OK, I'm OK, I understand"

Thumbs down

"No, negative"

  1. Spill containment - procedures for initial containment